# Semifinished product of Ban gold part spreads out computational method to study progress

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Sowerby put forward, it is a kind of method that has forecasting an analysis approximately in the light of the figuration process of Ban gold spare parts, this method takes no account of flow of plasticity of attrib border condition, metal and stress - meet an emergency concerns. The picture on the curved surface model that gives in place above all gives reseau, next the model apparently reseau unit is changed to plane through pure geometry means, receive semifinished product external form thereby [14] . 1998, xi Ping [15] puts forward cent of analyse of triangle of face of a kind of straight grain to develop a method, this method differentiates complex curved surface for a certain number of strip area, each strip area can consider as straight grain the face approximately, according to map regulation, each triangle piece ordinal a triangle piece rotate, make all triangle piece fall on same plane, the periphery outline that approachs the planar shape that determines by trigonometry plane with batten curve finally is nodded, what can get straight grain area is final develop form. Kang Xiaoming [what 16] put forward to cannot exhibit curved surface to spread out approximately is quadrangular wait for area law, be out of shape inside the range that when thinking the spare parts is requirement appearance by flat condition figuration, produces not quite, and unapt cause marked ply change, from this the quality of around of spare parts figuration is changeless and OK end is an area changeless; Its spread out process cent to be 4 measure: Curved surface disperse and reseau are changed, of the affirmatory, reseau that develops a center spread out, of information of spare parts structure spread out. 2008, wu Jianjun, yang Hanping [the geometrical map way that 17] offerred to be based on law vector, this method is a kind of method that rises in the development on the foundation of geometrical map law, the ray with the reference point of because be in,does not close attrib border point in avoiding ray to develop a way and bit more umbriferous node points to the problem of the area that the spare parts develops impossibly, integrated ray and law vector have this method spread out, got satisfactory result. 2009, wu Jianjun, zhang Shunying [the ray way that 18] develops with be based on law vector is a foundation, be aimed at casing costal region kind the panel buckling an edge in the spare parts and the problem that in taking breach panel to develop a process, encounter, the normal outside using the cut before add is used to cut unit is developing the method of planar and umbriferous direction, to buckling an edge undertake spreading out; At the same time document [the cut tangent that the means that 18] uses fictitious reseau breaks to be short of offers reseau, be in the essential part that makes cut tangent reseau of fictitious spare parts in order to make cut tangent complete, and true reseau outline shows only after computation is finished, fictitious reseau is deleted automatically by the program. The outstanding advantage of geometrical map law is calculated namely time is shorter, can apace computation gives wollens appearance, but because do not have a consideration mechanical wait for an element with attrib border condition, cannot reflect figuration process, spread out precision to be able to rely on true hypothesis condition only, algorithm does not have versatility. 7 orthogonality length spreads out law orthogonality length to develop a way [19] is a kind of means that offers in the light of the spare parts of sunken feature inside belt of long and narrow form. This method needs to choose curve of a center for the spare parts above all, next perpendicular to containing wall or the have figuration way partly balance that owe slope wall change processing, reach a center according to each node finally the distance of the line spreads out each node on horizontal. But it is not actual that strict orthogonality spreads out point-blank, because be in point of spare parts turning,overlap occurrence reseau phenomenon, the geometrical map law that is a center with some dot so still is used; The curvature center of area is with its photograph adjacent the node of the horny bisector of two area, two upright area use geometrical map law to spread out for reference point with central line end points. The author discovers in further research, to a few complex casing costal region kind Ban (graph 1) , when use orthogonality develops a way, be in in the border that does not close spread out a result to be able to appear bigger error (graph 2) , and the geometrical ray way of vector of use consideration law develops phenomenon of jackknife of meeting occurrence reseau (graph 3) ; Nextpage author considers two kinds of merits that develop a method integratedly in research, spread out process lieutenant general its mix application, differentiate the spare parts for 2 area, in area 1 medium node uses orthogonality to spread out a law to undertake spreading out, 2 medium node use area the geometrical ray way that considers law vector undertakes spreading out, got spreading out a result approvingly (graph 4) . 8 radial length spread out law radial length to develop a way [20] is the core that finds a part above all, calculate next centre of gravity arrives to spread out the curvilinear length between node currently, spread out calculative length map to the level finally on plane. The thought of this method and geometrical map law is similar, but law of opposite geometry map further. In addition, document [the solution that 21] parts to spread out law and perpendicular and umbriferous law to get with radial length analyses one bumper case with retrorse law as initiative solution, the result discovers radial length develops a way more the astringent that is helpful for a problem, investigate because radial length spreads out the initiative solution that the initiative solution that the law receives receives compared with perpendicular and umbriferous law to be close to real solution more,its reason is. 9 all be worth umbriferous law umbriferous all be worth a law [11] is the method that improves on the foundation of perpendicular and umbriferous law. Although perpendicular and umbriferous law has a principle handy, process designing comes true easily wait for an advantage, but can produce 0 areas unit or approximate 0 areas are unit, be aimed at this kind of circumstance, all be worth umbriferous law above all spare parts reseau perpendicular and umbriferous to the level on umbriferous face (as perpendicular as punch direction face) get reseau of abecedarian semifinished product, undertake be handlinged on average be achievinged thereby elimination the goal of 0 areas unit to node coordinate next. This method overcame the inadequacy of perpendicular and umbriferous law on certain level, want average number to reach certain amount only, always can eliminate 0 areas unit or approximate 0 areas are unit, but pull when the spare parts when deep deepness is deeper, what need for many times is average, increased calculative time undoubtedly so, unit across appears likely in the meantime. Document [22] key studied retrorse law analyses the affirmatory method of initiative solution in computation, be in to Dr. Xu Guoyan document [what put forward in 4] is umbriferous all was worth a law to make improve and amend further, obtained better result. 10 sectional lines develop a way sectional line develops a way [15] is a kind of improvement initiative solution that is based on geometry to spread out seeks solution means, with in front umbriferous law, geometrical map law and radial length spread out narrates arc length the law is similar on the thought, but its are being calculated the method that sort uses when the length of sectional line, the effect is better. This method overcame perpendicular and umbriferous law and geometry to develop the defect of the law on certain level, but the limitation with also exist certain, when there is more acuteness local bulging on component part, difference of length of 2 when can bring about photograph adjacent sectional lines is very big, serious when possibility occurrence unit overlaps, make succeed in one's scheme calculates failure thereby. Bin of be apt to of land of law of 11 pairs of sectional lines [11] puts forward " sectional line law " will be one pace the initiative value that retrorse imitate law offers flat preform. 2006, tang Bingtao [10] puts forward " law of double sectional line " it is to be based on " sectional line law " improve further, can give initiative solution for each compose intermediate computation, tie slide surface decides according to the punch-die information of current labor situation, and ask its flange wants enough big, include in order to ensure in iteration process intermediate compose reach each node on initiative preform; With triangular reseau will final part is mixed disperse of tie slide surface, obtain Set1 of information of 2 groups of reseau and Set2 from this. 2008, wu Jianjun, Zhu Hua [on the foundation that 23] is summing up forefathers to study positive result, formulate a kind of new reseau map method -- " double develop planar map way " , this method achieved intermediate compose initiative solution quickly, reduced the difficulty of map, raised map precision, increased the versatility of map program. 12 skid wire laws (SLFM) skid wire law [24-26] (SlipLine Field Method) it is 20 centuries Da Liefu of Hunan of the Russia before 50 time [24] puts forward first, its put forward what be Ban gold semifinished product for the first time to beg calculate found academic basis. The basic hypothesis of skid wire law [24-26] is: Ply of board makings flange is changeless and be in condition of planar meet an emergency; Material isotropy; Without sclerosis; Take no account of the influence that attrition force flows to plasticity. Below such hypothesis, derive outline of the mould in helping difficult process and board makings perimeter are advocate stress trace, because this skid wire shows 45 ° with these outline, direction makes 2 when draw goes out every a little bit the greatest shearing stress the line that include sth resembling a net, the expression that gets 2 groups of mutual orthogonality is the biggest shearing stress trace net of direction, namely skid wire. Be in when board makings when succumbing, the greatest shearing stress of each bits reachs K value, plasticity is out of shape undertake slippage along these trace. The method that skid wire field establishs, wraparound rise namely maths is analytic law and analytic organon. But, because skid wire law is the following of two respects apply premise and fail to be produced to carry out wide for: (1) the firm effect of meet an emergency of oversight material, assume plasmodium is body of one ideal firm plasticity, this meeting affects the precision that semifinished product forecasts; (2) be out of shape the object must be in condition of planar meet an emergency, in problem of board makings figuration, if the change of oversight ply, just can use at advocate the planar stress condition of stress surprise bugle call. Law of imitate of field of power of law of imitate of 13 situation field [1, 27-30] is 20 centuries the method of the wollens of a kind of computation that 80 time appear, having representative method quite is electric imitate law, fluid imitate law and heat conduct imitate law. Board makings is stamping workpiece of this method hypothesis the firm plasticity body of incompressible planar isotropy, in punch intermediary the flange part between workpiece brim and accurate preform brim is in plasticity condition, and inside below the action of brim stress to the flow inside sunken model antrum, according to the similar sex that a lot of physical problem maths depict, adopt similar theory, the model that introduces other physics medium to form comes the metal of flange of imitate board makings flows. 1988, deserted Wei Xian [28] put forward to beg irregular pressure delay a heat that develops wollens to conduct imitate law, begged solution to get irregular appearance is pressed through computer numerical value delay wollens appearance; Carry typical part pressing the comparative analysis that delays experiment and wollens of actual production spare parts to prove heat conducts imitate law is reasonable and feasible. 1997, wu Jianjun, Ma Zeen [the sectional figure that 31] uses different height to go up is pulled to complex form inclined wall deep the appearance has a description, applied situation sheds principle and border yuan the magic art is dark to pulling undertake the layer spreads out chasing; Pass checking computations, this method can be used at designing complex form to pull deep wollens spreads out. 2004, wu Jianjun, Li Shunping [32] gives out be based on situation shedding principle and border yuan pull 2 kinds of law and geometrical map deep wollens develops a method; In the first kind of method, situation shedding principle can be pulled with approximate description deep the flow of material of area of the flange in be out of shape, and through pulling deep of a different height statified develop the appearance outline that can acquire semifinished product; In the 2nd kind of method, basis reference point arrives pull deep on the transversal length that wants to develop a site and azimuth decide place wants to develop the seat that the dot is developing wollens to go up, get wollens develops form finally. Will press above earning of 2 kinds of methods spreads out wollens to be used at " one footwork " the analysis is optimized, according to optimizing computation result and experiment are opposite of 2 kinds of methods spread out precision to undertake analyse and discussion, reach use be based on situation shedding principle and border yuan the wollens of the law designs the woolen cloth that as a result apparent excel uses geometrical map to design a result. Although law of situation field imitate agrees with the semifinished product of Ban gold part of any attrib border appearance launchs an issue, but the result that reach is affirmatory below a series of hypothesis conditions, too Utopian. Actually, the board material that place of figuration of plane Ban gold uses is more play plasticity material, and existence machines sclerosis, the impact of element of the attrition in process of real take shape is bigger, metallic flow case is complex, the semifinished product form that consequently this method receives and dimension still are put in certain error. 14 finite yuan go against algorithm (one footwork) finite yuan a when go against algorithm main characteristic is board makings figuration the process simplifies be or a certain number of the be out of shaping of simple to load process, use total volume to undertake an analysis theoretically, because this computation can consider initiative configuration and final configuration only, among oversight compose change. 1997, french Batoz [33] gets the inspiration of geometrical map law, put forward above all alleged go against algorithm, this is one kind forecasts board makings big metabolic is efficient and algorithmic in figuration; This method considered triangular CST film unit, big play plasticity logarithm meet an emergency, thick Xiang Yi gender and plasticity measure type of concealed of academic, static state completely motion of algorithmic, mould causes perpendicular or law to node force, the attrition of the circle that approach a limit and the attrition of the force that approach a limit and drift and pressure expresses with simplifying outside force vector. After that Batoz undertook ceaseless improvement to its algorithm, measure test specimen to undertake detecting with a few classical standards, obtained satisfactory result. Pass all sorts of pair of algorithmic comparison, batoz thinks to go against algorithm to be able to get satisfactory result, among them algorithm of static concealed type is the most accurate, dynamic and explicit algorithmic rate is the rapiddest, and what flabby algorithm needs power memory is least [34] . Of the same age, lee [35] acceded the basic idea that Batoz goes against algorithm, but of the expression in vector of meet an emergency and virtual work equation build the system of triangular film unit that is final configuration appearance disperse approximately above all, the meet an emergency in final configuration distributings the function that represents the initiative configuration coordinate that is node and displacement, calculate next plasticity result; Assume plasticity result abides by Henchy to be out of shape theory and Hill anisotropy succumb in computation criterion; Derive by plasticity result and outside force result finally plasticity potential energy, use conjugate gradient method and Newton-Raphson method for target function with plasticity potential energy, beg piece its are being satisfied given below tie condition the smallest the unknown quantity when changing, get the appearance of board makings and measure thereby, get distributinging case of the stress after board makings is out of shape and meet an emergency then. Nextpage2004 year, wu Jianjun, chen Weibin, li Shunping [36] is used be out of shape theory and ideal are out of shape greatly suppose, gave out to be used at complex form to pull deep the formula of one footwork maths of a figuration analysis and finite yuan of expression means; On this foundation, deep to pulling initiative appearance undertook a semifinished product optimize, pull in figuration deep thick distributing to meet an emergency undertook an analysis, get satisfactory result. 2008, wu Jianjun [37] is aimed at calculation of form of panel initiative semifinished product and orthogonality of opposite sex board fast and finite yuan of analysis problem, the basis is pulled deep UG model derived the trigonometry reseau data of the spare parts, used geometrical map method to get be usinged at fast and finite of yuan of analysis pull deep initiative develop semifinished product. Ideal is based on to be out of shape on this foundation hypothesis and Hill ' 48 orthogonality opposite sex succumbs criterion, gave out to be used at pulling deep a formula of one footwork maths that figuration process analyses quickly and finite yuan of expression, undertook in Unigraphics system finite the postposition processing of yuan of analysis. Be opposite at the same time TC1 titanium board canister pull deep initiative appearance undertook a semifinished product optimize, deep to be being pulled in figuration thick distributing to meet an emergency undertake an analysis, get satisfactory result. Process of figuration of one footwork lieutenant general simplifies the be out of shaping that is simple to load process, and assume be out of shape backboard expects ply and area are changeless, be based on total volume to undertake an analysis theoretically, these and actual condition are put in difference, computational result is so coarser. Current, go up to had included one footwork module with software in a few business. 15 structures evolution optimizes a method (ESOM)Xie [38-40] put forward evolution of a kind of structure to optimize a method (EvolutionaryStructuralOptimizationMethod) , the develop that is used at structure and mechanical component attacks the structure is optimized. This method basically is with an area bigger and the board stuff with simple appearance begins consideration, the redundant material in component of again progressively purify, till obtain the board material of need of good part place, it is namely optimal board makings appearance and dimension. With its he optimizes methodological photograph to compare, the advantage with this the biggest method depends on simple and effective, need not calculate gradient, want data of a few reseau only (node coordinate, successional) and a few unit export information, be like meet an emergency, stress and density of result of plasticity potential energy; The place that is not worth however is iteration speed too slow, because use trigonometry unit, make final board makings outline is arranged solely not quite. 16 finite yuan of method of addition is finite yuan of method of addition [the basic idea of 41-42] is to use the computer to relapse imitate, the analysis gives whole process of mould and metabolic of spare parts of punch of technology program institute, the circumstance that masters data flow well and truly and the appearance contour line that computation gives spare parts board to expect, can reach the unit take out beyond contour line board makings appearance, can reach through be calculated repeatedly for many times and optimizing computation more reasonable board makings appearance, help deep success in order to assure. The plasticity flow of the metal in process of Ban gold figuration suffers the effect of the element such as lubricant condition and mould appearance, semifinished product appearance, finite yuan of impact that method of addition considered all sorts of factors in the round just about, because this also is the most accurate method. But finite the computational time with very long need of yuan of method of addition, because the contact is attrib border conditioning is relatively difficult, computational model is very consequently complex, calculative is astringent get very big impact. In the meantime, finite yuan method of addition must assume ability of appearance of a semifinished product begins consideration first, undertake correction to semifinished product appearance as a result according to computation next, every time computation is equivalent to trying a model. Its design a process to be: Take bigger rectangle → of numeric imitate of board makings → and ideal are pulled deep compare → to amend primitive new imitate of board makings → , till receive good part form,repeat this process, this more lengthened design cycle. Additional, finite yuan of method of addition is right demand of the person that use is higher, the promotion that restricted this method is used. But mix as computer technology finite yuan of technical development, software uses farther simplification, finite yuan method of addition will get applied extensively. Law of factor of scale of law of 17 scale factor [43] is a kind of algorithm that undertakes optimizing to contour line, can undertake optimizing to the board makings appearance of stamping workpiece and dimension already, also can undertake optimizing to needing the long foul line of the stamping workpiece of flange. Its are basic the thought is: Give essential initiative condition above all, include to pull factor of condition of property of the narrow yuan of model, initiative contour line after delaying figuration, goal contour line, board makings and ply, punch, attrition to wait, through calling finite yuan analytic software undertakes punch imitate, acquire cease contour line; Have cease contour line and goal contour line comparative next, if appearance error is in tolerancepublic errand limit,end operation, output this initiative contour line, conversely initiative to this contour line undertakes slanting specificly buy, call again finite yuan of software to slanting the contour line after buy undertakes planning to obtain to tool set slanting the cease contour line after buy; Finally, computation gives factor of scale of spare parts metabolic. Undertake correction to initiative contour line through scale factor, serve as the contour line after amending again the next time the initiative contour line of iteration. Till appearance error all is in tolerancepublic errand limit,circulate ceaselessly so, end iteration, regard best contour line as output the contour line of the last iteration. With finite photograph of yuan of method of addition than, although this method calculation is more mathematical, but of the experience of affirmatory hang on of the initiative contour line of this method and goal contour line accumulate, and of the computation of appearance error and initiative contour line slant buy and adjust workload bigger, this method application is very so finite also. 18 physics are converse law physics is converse law [the new method that 44] is appearance of a kind of affirmatory semifinished product, the high polymer polymer of recoverable sex has state of benefit appliance materiality imitating test, the high polymer data that at the same time the requirement uses and figuration material has similar sex. Use actual figuration pattern, give a part by imitate material preparation, undertake decorating a border to its next, recoverable character adjusts the figure that uses data the figuration after decorating a border undertake high temperature anneal spreads out, receive tablet of polymer of a planar high polymer, this flat outside predestined relationship appearance regards Ban gold as figuration semifinished product appearance. Material of the imitate when undertaking with imitate material physics experiments and archetypal material must accord with similar theory, the mechanical and similar requirement of the requirement in Ban gold figuration has the following: (1) the differentiate of sex of likeness of stress meet an emergency -- the σ when imitate material and archetypal material / σ S-E ε / when coincide of σ S curve, both σ - ε curve is completely similar (among them, σ is stress, σ S is succumb intensity, e is stretch model quantity, ε is) of meet an emergency. (2) succumb the similar criterion of criterion, namely imitate material and archetypal material should be subject to to succumb identically criterion. (3) the similar criterion that Poisson compares, namely imitate material and the Poisson that former profile expects should agree than metabolic rule. Choice and figuration material have the imitate stuff of mechanical and similar requirement, undertake with imitate material physical figuration experiments. Condition of other in figuration technology should have similar sex with original shape material. Experiment through physical figuration, the figuration that gets an imitate data, undertake to its processing gets as identical as appearance of actual part geometry figuration decorating a border. Use appearance to remember a gender, the figuration that builds the course that gets in physical imitating test the edge undertake heating, high temperature anneal, make figuration regain board stuff; The figure that uses the board material after restoring regards Ban gold as figuration of semifinished product spread out appearance to undertake trying pressing. If cannot satisfactory, the semifinished product that can regard physics as the 2nd times imitating test its determines a basis, repeat afore-mentioned processes, develop form till the semifinished product that gets reasonable satisfaction. A variety of methods that semifinished product of Ban gold part developed the problem that the method exists to the article induces and compare semifinished product of Ban gold part to spread out, it reflected the ceaseless development process that people studies to method of semifinished product calculation. However, the person that although be dedicated to,studies at this domain is very much, the means that offer is very much also, but, in light of the paper that publishs at present, still still put in a lot of problems and difficulty to be solved urgently. (1) type of spare parts of plane Ban gold is much, what use material sort much, tool breed is much, figuration method is much, its deflection and structure each are not identical, the factor that affects figuration is much, design the semifinished product of different figure hard with a kind of current method, the Ban gold part that needs to be aimed at different type consequently will study as corresponding as development algorithm and system. (2) from the point of the paper that publishs at present, the affirmatory substantially that reachs size to appearance of semifinished product of Ban gold part can divide it is 2 kinds: The means that is based on geometry and be based on finite yuan of numeric simulative means. Among them, the means that is based on geometry thinks plank just is below the condition that follows simple geometry regulation endure predicted deformation, mechanical without the consideration wait for an element with attrib border condition, cannot reflect figuration process, spread out precision to be able to rely on true hypothesis condition only, gets semifinished product precision has bigger error; Be based on finite means basically divides yuan of numeric simulative again it is two kinds big: The method of addition that is based on increment theory namely (Incremental Method) with the converse law that is based on deformation theory (Inverse Approach) or call one pace (One-step Method) . Finite yuan of impact that method of addition considered all sorts of factors integratedly, but computational amount is large, computational time is long; Finite yuan converse law uses total volume to undertake an analysis theoretically, consider initiative form only model with final form model, oversight intermediate compose change, its imitate precision is inferior to method of addition. (3) semifinished product of a variety of Ban gold part that induce from the article spread out a method to look, be based on finite yuan of numeric simulative is finite yuan go against algorithm (Inverse Approach) it is a kind of efficient numeric simulation tool, the semifinished product that can calculate punch product spreads out appearance and meet an emergency to distributing, of the inchoate design phase that uses Ban gold part effectively and craft parameter in optimizing a design; But finite yuan of need before going against algorithmic equation to use Newton-Raphson method to undertake iteration seeks solution an initiative solution with real solution close, in order to assure finite yuan of stability that goes against algorithm to seek solution and astringent, how be based on geometrical means to get an approximate initiative solution appears quickly then particularly important. Modern plane makes the development way that semifinished product of Ban gold part develops a method be being digitlized forward, compositive change direction to develop, according to the characteristic of spare parts of plane Ban gold, expands Ban gold part spreads out algorithm to should be had the following the character of 4 respects. (1) versatility. Type of spare parts of plane Ban gold is much, answer hard to search a kind of current method to be able to be used at designing the semifinished product of different figure. (2) accuracy. The semifinished product that the design gives should issue what can machine a contented quality to ask to make in corresponding craft condition, on the foundation that because this spare parts spreads out the wollens appearance after to should be in,contented quality asks as far as possible accurate, reduce follow-up clip process. (3) compositive sex. Ban gold spare parts spreads out a system to answer can expect the system is compositive below the products plan system with upper reaches and downstream platoon appearance and numerical control, build data to share. (4) fast sex. Spare parts of plane Ban gold is phyletic batch is much, much, odd an amount is little, efficiency develops the effect with be had very main to the spare parts. The last word passes what develop a method to semifinished product of Ban gold part to discuss, all sorts of methods that can see for the foundation with geometrical map law development rises are in the initiative solution respect of semifinished product of part of affirmatory Ban gold, having the fast sex advantage that cannot replace; Mix as computer technology finite yuan of technical development, software uses farther simplification, finite yuan of method of addition and finite yuan go against algorithm to will receive more wide application, also will change the main craft method of figuration of Ban gold nicety into amount to word at the same time; Additional, be opposite as people the further exploratory study of function of high polymer composite material, and converse to physics law is economic the research that turns technology issue, converse law is in physics to may not become the means of a kind of effective. CNC Milling