Composite material shapes automatically technology progress and the application in aviation

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Come nearly 30 years, as a result of the occurrence of large quantities of new-style planes, composite material got rising significantly in the application in plane structural member. Although cost resides composite material not to fall high, still cannot its are in block up the wide application of aviation domain [1] . Once the plane is designed finalize the design, what airframe place select material expects is different (metal / composite material) reach the function that decides a plane directly its to make cost. Current, decreasing heavy synergism already was the sole aim of structural member of production plane of use composite material no longer, how to reduce manufacturing cost to make its provide price advantage to get gradually more the attention of people [1-2] . Treatment craft automation is used extensively in metallic manufacturing industry already, most aircraft manufacturer used newest production technology in the treatment of metallic component. However, can use in composite material manufacturing industry shape technology is less, and to it the equipment of form a complete set is very costly. Shape the high cost of the limitation of craft and installation cost, serious obstacle the development of industry of aviation composite material. Although composite material shapes automatically craft is finite, but among them a few kinds of craft produced tremendous effect in aviation domain however. These craft improved the manufacturing efficiency of goods on certain level, reduced aviation level the high cost of composite material. Shape automatically the action that craft is reducing composite material structural member to create cost field is as follows [3] . (1) those who machine production man-hour decrease: Shape automatically process machines what reduce composite material part significantly man-hour. (2) of overall material utilization factor rise: Popularly, shape automatically the overall material utilization factor of process is 90%~97% , be compared and character, shape by hand the overall material utilization factor of the process is only 60%~80% . Of overall material utilization factor rising is to shape automatically one of main factors that craft reduces composite material structural member to make cost. (3) process intervenes artificially of degree reduce: As a result of beforehand the shop that dip expects is put undertake controlling through the computer, because this need not pledge technically check member undertake examining to lay up quality and lay up direction. (4) of the high quality of goods and process but repeatability: Shape automatically of process carry out what can improve product quality and assure process to be able to repeat. This is the another main factor that reduces composite material structural member to make cost. The article with respect to structural member of composite material plane shape automatically craft undertook summing up, the key introduced fiber shop to put shape, strip shop folds shaping characteristic and development. Composite material shapes automatically the craft wide application in aviation domain, be sure to reduce the production cost of plane structural member considerably, promote the development of aviation industry greatly. Composite material shapes automatically craft strip shop is folded (AutomatedTapeLayers, ATP) , fiber shop is put (FiberPlacement, FP) deliver moulding with colophony (ResinTransferMolding, RTM) the main technique that shaping is structural member of composite material of treatment production plane, fold with strip shop again among them shape to be put with fiber shop shape most commonly used [2-3] . Strip shop folds equipment and fiber shop to put equipment to be different from traditional industrial robot, this kind of process that is a foundation with the machine tool can reduce the treatment of composite material component to make cost significantly, right large structural member or model the range is sophisticated structural member shapes the effect is much better. Current, there is 60 strips shop to fold equipment and 35 fiber shop to put equipment to throw aircraft manufacturing industry about on the world, the treatment that is used at component of composite material of aviation class carbon fiber widely is made [2] . Watch 1 gave out to pass strip the shop is folded or fiber shop puts shaping typical plane structural member [3] . Strip shop folds equipment and fiber shop to put equipment is to be used at what composite material machines " machine tool " , its are similar to the machining center in metallic manufacturing industry in the action in composite material manufacturing industry. The shop is folded / the shop puts process to be able to be generalized for " converse machine adds a process " , namely this process is process of purify of material of and rather than of process of accumulation of a material [4] . Carbon fiber beforehand dip colophony composite material has stickiness [5] , the shop is folded / the shop puts equipment to spread its with constant pressure in core model surface, make ceaselessly new lay up " conglutinate " go up in the lay up before. Tell substantially, the shop is folded / the shop puts equipment is to have but the numerical control machine tool that driver of axis of orgnaization of rack of rod of process designing movement, gear, linear electric machinery and shop put a head [2, 4] . Pass process designing, the shop is folded / the shop puts equipment strict according to appearance of core model outline will beforehand dip makings spreads core model surface. Because the development of numerical control machine tool is quite mature already, because this shop puts head structure and control technology,become the key that implementation composite material shapes automatically. Fiber shop is put shape the idea that the characteristic fiber store that 1 fiber shop puts puts appears the earliest at 20 centuries 70 time end, this process and fiber are twined (FilamentWinding, FW) very adjacent [3] . Fiber spreads those who put technology to put forward to aim to overcome fiber to twine the confine in using a process. Fiber is twined is the first craft form that implementation composite material shapes automatically, use at columnar shape component normally (if the rocket launchs housing system) with structural member of close columnar plane shape, be not columnar structural member to cannot undertake machining production through this craft however in great quantities however. On Nextpage structure, fiber shop puts equipment and fiber to twine equipment very similar, make a stand by permanent worker (main shaft box + rear push frame) put a car with the shop (the motion of edge parallel X axis lathe bed at securing workbench) collective composition (see a picture 1) [4] . Twine with fiber different, fiber shop puts head and core model to be contacted directly, it is certain to be mixed with small pulling force pressure general beforehand dip makings spreads its surface [6] . Fiber shop puts a head to will count a root beforehand dip fiber or beforehand dip is taken (bandwidth is 0.

125 inches (0.

3175cm) ) the shop after collect is taken for the fiber of certain width is in core model surface. The shop lets off Cheng in, the shop puts a head to be able to stop, cut off and call among them any one beforehand dip fiber (monofilament bundle control) . The silk that forms fiber band bundle number is normally 12, 24 with 32, through will changing silk bundle fiber takes a shop to stick and press face of honest core model, the store that can implement complex structural member is put shape [2-3] . The shop lets off Cheng in, every fiber makes with its respective rate movement curvature shop is put be able to come true. The place before be like is narrated, the shop puts machines and tools to have " monofilament bundle control " ability, accordingly but strict according to complex model the surface of body undertakes fiber shop is put [4, 6] . Silk of the side outside passing increase and decrease bundle, the fiber in still can realizing a shop to put process brings the change of width. In addition, the shop is put of machine " monofilament bundle control " ability makes its can achieve cone-shaped substance appearance (if fly tail vertebra) wait for ply shop to put. To small end as a result of the main aspects of edge centrum the shop puts fiber tape, silk of the side outside passing take out bundle can reduce fiber bandwidth to spend, eliminate lay up jackknife and ply accumulation then, realize lay up finally wait for ply. 2 fiber shop puts shaping development to be located in the United States the company of Hercules space navigation western (present ATK company) the research that puts to fiber shop only then at 20 centuries 80 time [2, 7] . This company spread the first phase that puts technology development to do a large number of works in fiber, on the foundation that twines equipment in fiber of a 6 axes, development goes his shop of generation fiber puts equipment. 1989, hercules company spreads the experience in putting equipment to develop a process through summing up fiber, development goes shop of the 2nd acting fiber to put equipment, all advantages that this equipment first time achieved to spread knock off art to have on real significance [2] . It is a foundation with this, hercules/ATK company undertakes fiber spreads the development that puts equipment ceaselessly, throw its this company interior to use. Cincinnati company also takes an active part in a shop to put the development development of equipment. 20 centuries 80 time, this company puts emphasis of research and development in fiber to spread the design that puts a head to go up, then becomes the first can the machine tool company that the provider puts equipment with fiber shop [8] . 1990 around, cincinnati company begins to sell its business to put equipment with fiber shop, at present this company already became the largest fiber store on the world to put equipment supplier. Regard the maturity that structural member of implementation plane composite material shapes automatically as craft, fiber shop is put shape to applying extensively at aircraft manufacturing industry, the majority component of 787 planes all uses new generation Boeing this craft undertakes machining production [2, 5] . Fiber shop puts craft to already made the collective choice of main aircraft manufacturer on the world. Strip shop is folded shape 1 strip shop folds shaping development 20 centuries at the beginning of 60 time, of one-way strip introduce the shop that is large structural member to fold shape laid a foundation. 70 time end, the first Taiwan businessman folds equipment to be born with strip shop. To 80 time around, strip spreads those who fold craft to basically use an aircraft with Yu Jun to make, and business uses an aircraft the treatment of main structural member shapes to still cannot use this technology [7-8] . After this, because lack appropriate applied occasion, strip shop folded the use of craft to decrease greatly. 20 centuries since 90 time end, strip shop folds craft to gain the favour of aircraft manufacturer afresh, and the sales volume that strip shop folds equipment presents an admirable state. Business uses a large number of use of structural member of plane composite material, make strip shop folds craft again arisen, the application that folds equipment for strip shop at the same time provided broad market. The overall material utilization factor that strip shop folds craft is high, this one characteristic already got broad flying mechanism makes trade approbate, be able to make full use of in the treatment process of plane structural member. With before a few generation equipment photograph is compared, new strip store folds equipment to be not only on craft implementation more agile, its function also has rise significantly. 2 strip shop is folded shape shop of strip of the great majority on technical world folds equipment to use structure of door of open type dragon, include to wear X axis slideway high, the transverse arm that moves through axis of X of linear electric machinery and edge of drive of gear rack orgnaization (Y axis) and perpendicular and fixed the Z axis on transverse arm [2-3] (see a picture 2) . Accordingly, strip shop folds equipment is to have movement of dragon door structure and shop to put the much axis machine tool of a motion. Below the mast of dragon of core model park that Nextpage uses at the shop to fold (a side that is located in open space) fixed go up in the ground, after the shop folds equipment classics initialization, with core the model expresses surface contact, with pressing force general certainly beforehand dip belt spreads core model surface [3] . Pass process designing to be able to realize the accurate control of strip appearance and dimension. In addition, the distance between photograph adjacent strip should be controlled inside certain limits, and do not allow occurrence strip jackknife. Strip shop folds equipment to have 2 kinds of basic configuration, a kind of curved surface store that is used at be like wing envelope is folded (ContourTapeLayer, CTL) , with Yu Ping face shop is folded another kind (FlatTapeLayer, FTL) [3, 8] . Although 2 kinds of shops fold equipment,go up in the structure basic and identical, but as a result of former can realize curved surface shop to fold already can realize planar shop to fold again, because this is more agile, applied circumstance is wider also. Current, most strip shop folds craft to all fold equipment implementation through curved surface shop on the world. With fiber the shop puts technology same, the shop puts a head is the key that realizes strip shop to fold craft. Those who be used at the shop to fold is one-way beforehand dip takes width to be 3 inches normally, 6 inches or 12 inches (7.

62cm, 15.

24cm or 30.

48cm) . Strip shop folds a technology to have 3 kinds, it is respectively [3] is single-phase (Single-phase) the shop folds technology, double photograph (Two-phase) the shop folds technology, Chan Shuangxiang compound (Dual-phase) the shop folds a technology. Single-phase shop is folded shape the level that can count a shop to fold craft, shop of strip of the great majority on the world folds equipment to all use this engineering technology. Single-phase shop folds a process in, beforehand dip belt loads a shop to put a head, ordinal take roller, conduction band through sending groove and cut take an orgnaization, cut orgnaization cuts off strip only and do not injure back mount among them. The appearance of need and dimension are formed after dip belt is cut via cutting into parts beforehand, after the shop puts a head to be cut with pressing force general to cut into parts certainly beforehand dip belt spreads core model surface, and back mount reclaims through receiving drum. Single-phase shop folds a process medium beforehand dip takes cut to need equipment to be in decelerate or suspend status next undertaking, however whole shop folds a process come true on an equipment. To double photograph the shop is folded shape, machine of cut leaving a line reduces strip the figure that cuts contented craft demand and size, move at the same time except flotsam [3] (if pursue,show 3 times) . Cut belt after finishing, the surface will fall to affix mount on dip belt beforehand first, circle subsequently on belt dish. Belt dish on stick have a form yard, mark beforehand the relevant message that dip carries [2-3] : The process of material blemish, material that make, this beforehand dip belt is folded in the shop shape the use in the process is ordinal. Be cut via cutting into parts and after paster is handled beforehand dip belt loads a shop to put a head. Because leave line cut opportunity already will beforehand dip belt reduces the figure that cuts need and size, because this double photograph shop folds the shop of equipment,put a head to not have cut take a function. The shop is folded when shaping, 2 kinds of movements interrupt those who bring about process, namely of the cut of strip and flotsam move except. However, cut leaving a line makes double photograph shop is folded shape the occurrence that avoided 2 kinds of afore-mentioned actions, equipment need not stop machine or decelerate to undertake cut strip is mixed move except flotsam, consequently whole shop folds a process is finished below high speed condition. Fold with single-phase shop shape to be compared, double photograph shop folds efficiency taller. Say simply, only twin compound store is folded even if 2 kinds of afore-mentioned shops are folded shape technical union. Just as its name implies, only twin compound store folds a shop to put a side of the head to fold a structure for single-phase shop, another side folds a structure for double photograph shop, and whole shop puts couplet of head orgnaization solid at Z axis. Only twin compound store is folded shaping is at present the the most agile, most efficient automatic shop folds craft form. Current, only twin compound store folds equipment to already was used at Boeing of structural member of 787 planes wing make. The wide application that strip shop folds craft to make trade in flying mechanism will increase aviation manufacturer to fold the demand of equipment to the shop greatly, fold craft to offer capacious development prospect for the shop then. In addition, because the structural member such as large transport empennage must pass strip,the shop folds craft implementation to shape make, make the structural member of large composite material that machines through this craft over other shape means, this also promoted strip to lay the progress that folds craft on certain level. The development trend that composite material shapes automatically in recent years, aviation manufacturer gives a spare parts the supplier more and more plane part subcontract [4, 6] . Accompany this one trend, each medium, little supplier shapes automatically to low cost composite material the demand of equipment is bigger and bigger. Machine tool company can throw more energy this domain, the fiber store that supplies low cost, miniaturization for the user puts equipment and strip shop to fold equipment. Such, little supplier can buy composite material to shape automatically in great majority equipment is made with the treatment at plane structural member, promote the development of aviation manufacturing industry then. Composite material shapes automatically equipment is in ceaseless get rid of the stale and bring forth the fresh. The small-sized strip shop that Forest-Line company makes folds equipment to have its completely all function of large facility, this effective job limits that single-phase shop folds equipment is 16 feet (40.

64cm) (long) × 7 feet (17.

78cm) (wide) [2] . Forest-Line company still plans development to have strip shop to fold the machine tool of dragon door type that puts a function with fiber shop at the same time, the dragon mast of this machine tool includes 2 Z axle, among them with strip the shop folds structural coupling one, with fiber the shop puts structural coupling another. Look from the structure, the lathe bed of machine tool of dragon door type is very long, one aspect of the matter is fiber shop puts used fixed workbench (main shaft box + rear push frame) , another end is the space opening open that is used at strip shop to fold [3] . Fiber shop is put and strip shop folds lamination of two kinds of composite material to shape technology, but compositive go up in the machine tool of all sorts of structures and dimension [8] . The wide application of course of study is made in flying mechanism as composite material, more and more machine tool companies become sortie composite material V-neck territory, develop fiber shop to put what fold a technology with strip shop is large and automatic shape equipment. CNC Milling